KWP2000 protocol for automotive diagnostic applications

KWP2000 protocol is de facto standard for automotive diagnostic applications. ISO standard 14230-3. KWP2000 describes the implementation of various diagnostic services that can be overridden by the protocol. You can run KWP2000 on multiple transport layers, such as K-Line (Serial) or CAN.

Transport Protocol

Because KWP2000 uses variable byte length messages, a delivery protocol with only well-defined (short) message length layers, such as CAN, is required. The transport protocol divides the long KWP2000 message into pieces that can be transmitted over the network and assembles these pieces to restore the original message.

KWP2000 runs on different transport protocols on CAN, such as ISO TP (ISO 15765-2), TP 1.6, TP 2.0 (Volkswagen) and SAE J1939-21. For KWP2000, the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set only supports ISO TP (Standardized ISO 15765-2) and manufacturer-specific VW TP 2.0 transport protocols.

Diagnostic Services

The diagnostic features available in KWP2000 are grouped in functional units and identified by a byte code (ServiceId). The standard does not specify all the codes; For some codes, the standard refers to other SAE or ISO standards and some are reserved for manufacturer-specific extensions. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports the following features:

• Diagnostic Management

• Data Transmission

• Stored Data Transfer (Diagnostic Trouble Codes)

• Input / output control

• Routine Remote Control

Charging / Downloading and Upgrading Not Included in the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set

Diagnostic Service Format

Diagnostic services have a common message format. All services define a request message, positive response messages, and negative response messages. The Request Message contains ServiceId as the first byte, complemented by parameters defined by the service. The echo of the positive response message is ServiceId, bit 6 in the first byte, and the response parameters defined by the service.

A negative response message is usually a three byte message: negative response as first byte, original ServiceId as second source echo, and ResponseCode as third byte. The only exception to this format is the negative response to EscapeCode; here, the third byte is the echo of the user-defined service code, and the fourth byte is the ResponseCode. The KWP2000 standard partially defines ResponseCode, but there is still room for manufacturer-specific extensions. For some response codes, the KWP2000 defect management procedure is defined. Since both positive and negative responses have the echo of the requested service, you can always assign answers to the right request.

Connection / Disconnection

KWP2000 expects to start a diagnostic session with StartDiagnosticSession and terminate with StopDiagnosticSession. However, StartDiagnosticSession has a diagnostic mode parameter that specifies the type of diagnostic session. Depending on this type, the ECU can support other diagnostic features or may work in limited mode where not all ECU functions are available. Values ​​for the DiagnosticMode parameters are manufacturer-specific and are not defined in the standard. If the diagnostic workflow remains active, you must perform TesterPresent on a regular basis if no other service is performed. If TesterPresent is missing for a certain period, the diagnostic session stops and the ECU returns to normal mode.

GetSeed / Unlock

The GetSeed / Unlock mechanism can protect some diagnostic features. However, the services to be used are left out by the manufacturer and are not specified by the standard. GetSeed / Unlock can be implemented through SecurityAccess. This defines a number of security levels but the manufacturer can assign these levels to certain services

Read / Write Memory

Read / WriteMemoryByAddress allows you to upload / download data to each memory address of an ECU. The address is a three byte amount in KWP2000 and a 5 bytes (four byte address and one byte extension) in calibration protocols. The services of upload / download functional units are highly manufacturer-type and are not well-defined in the standard and are therefore not a good way to provide a general upload / download mechanism.


With ReadDataByLocal / CommonIdentifier you can access ECU data in the same way as a DAQ list. Local / CommonIdentifier describes a list of ECU quantities that are transmitted from the ECU to the tester. Transmission can be either single or periodic, slow, medium or fast. Transmission charges are specific to the manufacturer; you can set them using SetDataRates, but this setting is manufacturer-specific. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports single point measurements.

Diagnostic Trouble Codes

The most important diagnostic feature is reading diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs). KWP2000 defines services that have access to DTCs based on their group or status.

Input / Output Control

KWP2000 defines services for modifying internal or external ECU signals. One example is the redirection of the ECU sensor inputs to the stimulated signals. The control parameters for these commands are manufacturer-specific and are not defined in the standard.

Routine Remote Operation

These services are similar to those of CCP ActionService and DiagService. The ECU identified by the Local / CommonIdentifier can call an internal procedure or a memory address. Contrary to CCP, routine implementation can be asynchronous; ie, there is a separate Start, Stop, and RequestResult service. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer-specific and are not defined in the standard

External references

For more information on the KWP2000 standard, see ISO 14230-3.

Source by Amos Huang

7 tips to help you maximize your private tour

If you want to go on a private tour, our tips can help. During a trip, tons of joy will see the beautiful sights and other cultures in another place. Learn more about tips that can make your trip unforgettable.

Unique Experience

Private Tour is a great idea, experience. But it's only possible if you talk with the guide that you have the right expectations. Therefore, you may want to share your favorite, unloved, and interest in the guide, and this helps guide you to get the best experience of the tour experience.

Get ready for the wrong time

You need to be ready to handle bad weather. You know sunny days, cloudy days and rainy days. Contrary to what most people believe, bad weather is a good time for the tour.

However, make sure you take the necessary steps to avoid having trouble in the bad weather. You do not want to ruin your way.

Choose comfortable shoes

You may want to pair some comfortable shoes. Likewise, one should wear a piece of clothing for different types of weather patterns, habits and cultures. Again, this guide can help you make the right choices.

Respect other cultures

It may be a respectable place of culture with it. What does this mean? In short, we need to understand the things that will be different in these places. It is a fact that travelers who spend a lot of time in understanding different behaviors and clients entertain their travels.

Try New Things

I want to try new things like food, activities, and drinks. No matter how small it is, give it a little. You will have fun.

Before you go, remember to know more about where to go or to visit. And do not ignore this guide from a special place that you care most about.

Another way to learn more about the place is to read a novel or novel written by a writer who lives in this area. This will help you learn more about local culture and inspire you.

Ask questions

Ask them questions. The guides must have tons of knowledge. In fact, it's a lot more fun to know more about a place when you talk to an expert.

Long story short, these are some things you should consider before you go to the next private tour. Keeping these tips in mind keeps you entertained by tones. So do not ignore these tips and do not underestimate the importance of guiding this guide. Hope this helps.

Source by Shalini Madhav

Summary: Will this be the first person or third person?

If I have my trip, every single summary would be in the first person. But then the world has not yet come to see the way.

Regardless of whether you summarize the executive summary of the first person or third party, it usually depends on the relationship with the client. It's like this. The larger the organization, the more likely it is to use the third person – in a more formal voice. The better you know the customer, and the better the relationship, the chances are that the summary is written by the first person and more informal and more talkative. For entrepreneurs, this is more fair for small businesses with whom they worked and built relationships

But keep that in mind. Regardless of whether you are using the first or third person in the executive summary, the choice is related. If you have a great relationship with the top leadership of a larger organization, you can use the first person. This is – me, I, what, what. However, if the summary can be seen by people who do not value the low key, the warm, first person language that you are likely to use or is unrelated to will hold the third person; he / she, he / she.

You are here to decide if the first person is in your executive summary of the convenience of the customer. For example, you can tell the client: "We recommend taking this action process, and if you agree, I'll set up a meeting with people, then we'll go through the next steps." This is the first person and informal.

In general, you will not or will not use the first person if you give a summary to any organization you do not know; ie government, large corporations, non-governmental organizations. It will probably be startling if you start using Me or Mi. They can not count on it, and the problem you have to face is that you can dismiss any of the great suggestions simply because of the language you are using.

Is there an exception? Of course they are. Some organizations are just different. Progressive, creative, more open alternative approaches. A sports team, an entertainer, or a political organization, is eager to do something good. If your proposal is unique, the summary should be unique. You do not have to follow the format of a traditional third person.

In addition to the criteria for developing the implementation summary, a summary of your proposal is also available. What can I make available and how do I link with the first or third person? I bet you read a book or paper that you thought about great stuff but it turned out to be hard to read. With accessibility, I mean writing is easy to follow, easy to understand – and complex issues are being explained effectively. Books, papers, suggestions often drag on if they do not have access. People should not think about reading them, myself, too. My point is, I think the writing of the first person is generally more accessible. You can write – your own voice. It is very natural, it is warmer and therefore more accessible. Maybe they've even better understood it. At first I said that the world still did not come to my mind to use the first person. This is not entirely true, thanks to the impact of social media. Social media is turning upside-down to networking. Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter creates relationships that have never existed in the past. These new relationships lead to inbound marketing, largely through blogs, and blogs are always the first person to write. This is the link between social media and the creation of a more informal world. This, in turn, affects how we communicate in other areas. So do not expect the executive summary to be a third party like in the past.

But what if you have to insist on an official third party to respond to RFP or other suggestions to provide a certain personality to your proposal? You may not be able to use the summary, but guess what. The cover letter gives you this option. It comes from you, this is the first person to distinguish you from your unique features that you really want your clients to know about you and your business.

First person or third person executive summary? Ask yourself what your relationship is, or not, with the customer. You can always use the third person to play safely. If you are more personal and informal, and your relationship with the client is justified, consider using the first person.

Source by Neil Sawers

Happy Animals, Happy Life: Finding The Right Pet Food

A happy pet is a healthy diet that is full of the nutrients you need. They must meet their unique and unique needs, ensuring they live a long and joyful life. Thanks to the many possibilities, the right pet food is easy to obtain. However, this depends on a number of factors, including health status and allergies. Lifestyle, weight and age play a role in choosing the right product and brand. In order to make the most of every meal you can fully meet them. Cats and Dogs

Cats and Dogs are the most common in the market. The popularity of their companions led to infinite possibilities. Owners can access everything from budget-friendly dry types to cool-demand banks. Check the ingredients on the tag and look for terms like "full and balanced". This indicates that the recipe contains at least the required minimum nutrients.

With such a huge selection, owners may try to choose a few different choices to determine the right diet. Pet foods target bad body functions, bad bones, scattering, and almost any other need during the day. Be sure to find a breed that matches the age of the animal – some brands make specially-formulated hunting for puppies and kittens as well as older hairy friends who need special care.

conditions, special options are available. However, some people need veterinary prescription before buying.

Other Animals

Small mammals, reptiles, fish and other animals do not have the same broad variety, but quality is still there. There are many species that have access to a healthy and complete diet for every animal. Special choices are also available. Not available in all stores, still those that focus on the health needs of smaller animals.

Emergency Health Needs

action. After visiting the vet, animal trade is a crucial step. This will do everything they need.

Cats and dogs need all the equipment they need. The vet suggests a new diet plan to facilitate digestion. Additional accessories such as raised bowls or even special pots can help dogs slow to eat. Your hairy friends may also require special treatment for diseases, so consult a specialist before buying new cats or good food for the cat or dog.

Every owner needs time to find the right pet food. No matter the animal or your needs, there are choices and supplies that will make the trick. A diet rich in nutrition can help pet animals last longer with less complications and problems than their age.

Source by Alfred Ardis

Sunshine Coast Tourism Bounces Back

In spite of the floods, the oil spill, and a bout of bluebottle jellyfish, not to mention the recession, Australia's Sunshine Coast recorded another Easter break bumper. Coupled with the news that the Sunshine Coast has seen Queensland's strongest growth for business visitors in the last financial year, the region has much to celebrate.

Figures from the Queensland Business Events Survey show 20,000 business visitors came to the region , spending a minimum of nearly $ 400-a-day. The figures are particularly significant at a time when businesses are cutting back on their conference expenses.

As a result of the unprecedented flooding in the week before Easter, there was projected gloom and doom in the region as some tour operators were forced to close their business over one of the busiest weekends of the year. Owners of campsites and caravan parks around the flood hit areas of Kin Kin and the upper reaches of the Noosa River were trying their best to warn the visitors to stay away during the Easter weekend as the floods had washed away or severely damaged facilities.

However, the region benefited from its close proximity to Brisbane and aggressive marketing from the tourism industries as Brisbane residents flocked to book last minute deals. Great value deals and targeted advertising resulted in better than expected occupancy rates on the coast. A $ 2 million marketing and advertising campaign, aimed at highlighting the coast's clean and safe beaches after the oil spill, was also expected to attract visitors from Sydney, Melbourne and New Zealand. But many Sunshine Coast accommodation facilities reported that they had been booked for months in advance by visitors unwilling to risk losing out on their annual Easter break by leaving it until the last minute to book. From camp sites to luxury five-star resorts, 'no vacancy' signs were happily displayed everywhere.

With the benefit of simultaneous school holidays across Australia, visitors were able to spend longer in the region after the Easter weekend , finding plenty of ways to spend their money on the coast's many tourist facilities. Rough surf conditions and more rain meant that the tourists looked to entertain themselves in the countless restaurants, amusement facilities and shopping centers of the Sunshine Coast.

A bumper seafood supply on the Sunshine Coast over Easter was also expected to keep visitors happy over the holiday period. With consumers trying to eat more healthily and being conscious about eating locally caught seafood, Sunshine Coast fishermen were anticipating a surge in demand for their abundant supplies of spanner crabs, Mooloolaba prawns, Moreton Bay bugs, fish and scallops. The recent oil spill had little effect on sales as the region's authorities were very quick to publicise the fact that Sunshine Coast seafood was safe to eat.

Expect to find many more great deals on Sunshine Coast accommodation up and down the region as the quieter autumn and winter seasons approach. With the coldest month of July having a average daily maximum temperature of 20.9C, tourism operators will be vigorously promoting the warm and dry climate that the Sunshine Coast enjoys.

Source by Roger Laganin

Fitness Equipment Leasing – Benefits for Your Business

Do you need new fitness equipment for your business or organization but is short of cash? Look at the lease in the limited budget or through the provisioning of working capital.

Leasing is essentially a loan in which a creditor – a bank or other financial institution – "A business or organization that is similar to a popular car lease It is typical that the lender charges the monthly monthly interest rate for a specified month for the use of the equipment During the lease period, the enterprise or organization has the option:

  • Purchase of equipment to fair market value
  • Continue leasing of equipment 19459007 19459007 19459007 19459007 19459007 19459007 ]

The main advantage of renting fitness equipment is the tight budget work and the working capital This will allow you to acquire tools at a minimal initial cost. Since leasing of equipment generally does not require a pre-payment, you need to obtain the required product without significant cash flow, so more money is available for other critical needs.

Another financial advantage of leasing fitness equipment is that lease payments are often deducted from the cost of tax returns, reducing the net cost of the rent. Be sure to check with the tax consultant before making a lease on how this can be applied to the entity. In addition, leases are generally easier to obtain and have more flexible conditions than loans intended for purchase. This can have a significant advantage if you have a bad credit or you have to make a longer pay plan to reduce costs.

Who Is This?

Leasing of equipment to any business or organization meets any size and stage of development. They can be used with a limited revenue launch to stand up and operate. They can be used with proven business processes, with constant revenue sources, and may provide reserves for other business investments. Businesses that are prone to using short-lived assets (such as Quick Obsolete) may also benefit from leasing.

Where do you find it?

Equipment leasing options are plentiful. Retailers in many cases, if not most, are in partnership with leasing companies. The retailer will advise you on the preferred leasing agent to discuss the process, benefits and risks.

Is it right for my business or organization?

Leasing fitness equipment can be beneficial to your business. For a thorough understanding of the benefits and disadvantages, it is advisable to consult the accountant before entering into a lease agreement.

Source by Ty Hartwell